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Asbestos Management
What is asbestos?

Asbestos is the name applied to six naturally occurring minerals that are mined from the earth. 
Of these six, three are more commonly encountered. Chrysotile (white) is the most common, but it is not unusual to come across Amosite (brown), or Crocidolite (blue) as well.
Chrysotile-asbestos_thumb.jpg
All types of asbestos tend to break into very tiny fibers. These individual fibers are so small that many must be identified using a microscope. In fact, some individual fibers may be up to 700 times smaller than a human hair.  Asbestos fibers are so small that, once released into the air, they may stay suspended there for hours or even days.

Asbestos fibers are also virtually indestructible. They are resistant to chemicals and heat. They do not evaporate into air or dissolve in water, and they are not broken down over time. Asbestos could very well be the best insulator known to man. Due to its multiple useful properties, asbestos has been used in over 3,000 different products.

Usually asbestos is mixed with other materials to actually form the products. Floor tiles, for example, may contain only a small percentage of asbestos. Depending on what the product is, the amount of asbestos in asbestos containing materials (ACM) may vary from 1%-100%.

...but I thought asbestos had been banned?

As of today, a significant number of asbestos containing products are banned by federal regulation.  However, there is still a considerable amount of asbestos containing products  that are NOT banned, and continue to be manufactured, imported, processed and distributed in the United States.  A few examples of asbestos containing products that are NOT banned, include: cement corrugated sheet, cement flat sheet, pipeline wrap, roofing felt, vinyl floor tile, cement shingle, cement pipe and roof coatings.  Significant amounts of asbestos are still used in India and China, and products from these countries continue to be imported into the United States.     


It is important to remember that, in spite of the ban on a significant number of asbestos containing products, ACM is still present in millions of buildings in the United States.  This is due to the building’s date of construction, as well as the date of any renovations or additions.  As a general rule of thumb, any building constructed prior to 1981 most likely contains asbestos.


Where can I find asbestos?

Asbestos may be found in many different products and many different places. Examples of products that might contain asbestos are:
  • Sprayed-on fire proofing and insulation in buildings
  • Insulation for pipes and boilers
  • Wall and ceiling insulation
  • Ceiling tiles
  • Floor tiles
  • Old fume hoods and lab benches
  • Putties, caulks, and cements (such as in chemical carrying cement pipes)
  • Roofing shingles
  • Siding shingles on old residential buildings
  • Wall and ceiling texture in older buildings and homes
  • Joint compound in older buildings and homes
  • Brake linings and clutch pads

Read more about other places where asbestos can be found: 

 
When is asbestos dangerous?

The most common way for asbestos fibers to enter the body is through inhalation. In fact, asbestos containing material is not generally considered to be harmful unless there has been a fiber release, where said fibers can be inhaled. Many of the fibers will become trapped in the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, but some may pass deep into the lungs, or, if swallowed, into the digestive tract. Once they are trapped in the body, the fibers can cause health problems.


Asbestos is most hazardous when it is friable. The term "friable" means that the asbestos is easily crumbled by hand, releasing fibers into the air. Sprayed on asbestos insulation is highly friable. Asbestos floor tile is not.

Asbestos-containing ceiling tiles, floor tiles, undamaged laboratory cabinet tops, shingles, fire doors, siding shingles, etc. will not release asbestos fibers unless they are disturbed or damaged in some way. If an asbestos ceiling tile is drilled or broken, for example, it may release fibers into the air. If it is left alone and not disturbed, it will not.

Damage and deterioration will increase the friability of asbestos-containing materials. Water damage, continual vibration, aging, and physical impact such as drilling, grinding, buffing, cutting, sawing, or striking can break the materials down, making fiber release more likely.

Health Effects

Due to the fact that it is so hard to destroy asbestos fibers, the body cannot break them down or remove them once they are lodged in lung or body tissues. They remain in place where they can cause disease.


There are three primary diseases associated with asbestos exposure:

  • Asbestosis
  • Lung Cancer
  • Mesothelioma

Asbestosis

Asbestosis is a serious, chronic, non-cancerous respiratory disease. Inhaled asbestos fibers aggravate lung tissues, which cause them to scar. Symptoms of asbestosis include shortness of breath and a dry crackling sound in the lungs while inhaling. In its advanced stages, the disease may cause cardiac failure.


There is no effective treatment for asbestosis; the disease is usually disabling or fatal. The risk of asbestosis is minimal for those who do not work with asbestos; the disease is rarely caused by neighborhood or family exposure. Those who renovate or demolish buildings that contain asbestos may be at significant risk, depending on the nature of the exposure and precautions taken.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer causes the largest number of deaths related to asbestos exposure. The incidence of lung cancer in people who are directly involved in the mining, milling, manufacturing and use of asbestos and its products is much higher than in the general population. The most common symptoms of lung cancer are coughing and a change in breathing. Other symptoms include shortness of breath, persistent chest pains, hoarseness, and anemia.


People who have been exposed to asbestos and are also exposed to some other carcinogen -- such as cigarette smoke -- have a significantly greater risk of developing lung cancer than people who have only been exposed to asbestos. One study found that asbestos workers who smoke are about 90 times more likely to develop lung cancer than people who neither smoke nor have been exposed to asbestos.

Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that most often occurs in the thin membrane lining of the lungs, chest, abdomen, and (rarely) heart. About 200 cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Virtually all cases of mesothelioma are linked with asbestos exposure. Approximately 2 percent of all miners and textile workers who work with asbestos, and 10 percent of all workers who were involved in the manufacture of asbestos-containing gas masks, contract mesothelioma.


People who work in asbestos mines, asbestos mills and factories, and shipyards that use asbestos, as well as people who manufacture and install asbestos insulation, have an increased risk of mesothelioma. So do people who live with asbestos workers, near asbestos mining areas, near asbestos product factories or near shipyards where use of asbestos has produced large quantities of airborne asbestos fibers.

Determining Factors

Three things seem to determine your likelihood of developing one of these asbestos related diseases:

 

  1. The amount and duration of exposure - the more you are exposed to asbestos and the more fibers that enter your body, the more likely you are to develop asbestos related problems. While there is no "safe level" of asbestos exposure, people who are exposed more frequently over a long period of time are more at risk.
  2. Whether or not you smoke - if you smoke and you have been exposed to asbestos, you are far more likely to develop lung cancer than someone who does not smoke and who has not been exposed to asbestos. If you work with asbestos or have been exposed to it, the first thing you should do to reduce your chances of developing cancer is to stop smoking.
  3. Age - cases of mesothelioma have occurred in the children of asbestos workers whose only exposures were from the dust brought home on the clothing of family members who worked with asbestos. The younger that people are when they inhale asbestos, the more likely they are to develop mesothelioma. This is why enormous efforts are being made to prevent school children from being exposed.

Because each exposure to asbestos increases the body burden of asbestos fibers, it is very important to reduce and minimize your exposure.   

For more information on these and other health effects of asbestos exposure see the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and the National Cancer Institute.